JavaScript (JS) is a language of growing importance at the intersection of media/culture technology:

Note: Despite the similarity of name, JavaScript has no particular relation to Java. JavaScript is however also known as ECMAScript, JScript, and ActionScript.

For media/culture technology purposes:

Nevertheless, JavaScript is not the greatest language, and incorporates some rather poor designs; we'll work through and around those as we go.

Flexible, fast, well-supported:

Additional learning resources:

Brief overview of the language



JavaScript types are: number, string, true, false, null, undefined, and object. Numbers and strings are object-like in having methods, but they are immutable. Arrays, functions, regular expressions are objects.

typeof n returns the type of variable n as a string, which may be: number, string, boolean, undefined, function, object; however if the operand is an array, or null, it will also return object.


Strings are bounded by " or '. Characters are 16-bit. Special characters are escaped: \", \', \\, \/, \n (newline), \t (tab). Also character codes, e.g. "A" === "\u0041".

Strings are immutable but can be concatenated with + and manipulated through methods.

"seven".length == 5
'cat'.toUpperCase() === 'CAT'

string.charAt(n) returns the character (a string of length 1) at position n. string.charCodeAt(n) returns a character code (integer). string.fromCharCode(n) converts back to a string.

string.indexOf(s, i) returns the first index of s, starting at position i. If not found, it returns -1. See also string.lastIndexOf.

string.slice(start, end) makes a copy of a subsection of the string. Indices can be negative.

string.split(separator, limit) creates an array of strings according to a separator (which can be ''). Limit is optional.


There is no integer type, all numbers are floats. 10 is the same as 10.0 is the same as 1e1. Convert a float to an integer using Math.floor(), Math.ceil() etc.

All kinds of unexpected fun can happen from the fact that floats cannot accurately represent many numbers. This can be surprising, e.g. 0.1 + 0.2 === 0.3 returns false. See wtfjs for more examples.

1/0 returns Infinity.

Math.sqrt(-1) and similar return NaN. You can check with isNaN(number). Note that NaN is not equal to itself.

To check if a value is a usable number:

var isNumber = function(v) {
    return typeof v === "number" && isFinite(v);

There are several built-in numbers (constants) such as Math.PI.

Numbers have several methods for conversion to string, such as number.toString(), number.toFixed(n), number.toPrecision(n) etc.

Booleans & truthiness

true and false are the only boolean values, but in most cases JavaScript uses a more permissive sense of truthiness/falsyness, because of automatic type coercion.

falsy values are false, null, undefined, '', 0, NaN; all other values are truthy. An if condition (and similarly case, while, for) will test for truthiness, not truth. The ! unary operator uses truthiness (not truth), and the boolean operators &&, || also use truthiness.

To explicitly use truth (not truthiness), use the === comparators.

Control flow

The common forms:

if (<cond>) {
    // "then" clause
} else if (<cond2>) {
    // alternate then
} else {
    // all other cases

for (<init>; <cond>; <increment>) {
    // body

// note: the order is unpredictable.
for (<name> in <obj>) {
    // body

while (<expr>) {
    // until expr is falsy


An object maps keys (strings, including '') to values (anything at all except undefined). A key only appears once. Objects collect & organize data. Keys can be added, modified and removed.

var emptyobj = {};
var binarytree = {
    "left": {            // note: quotes around keys are optional
        "left": 10,        // so long as key name is valid syntax
        "right": 20        // for a JavaScript variable name
    "right": {
        "left": 5,
        "right": 13

// indexing objects:
binarytree["left"]["left"];     // 10
binarytree.left.left;     // 10
binarytree.middle;        // undefined
binarytree.middle || 7;    // 7
binarytree.middle.middle;    // throw TypeError
binarytree.middle && binarytree.middle.middle;    // undefined

// Warning: indexing will also check methods and prototypes:
binarytree.toString;    // returns a function

// adding & removing keys:
emptyobj.x = 10;
emptyobj.x;    // 10
delete emptyobj.x;
emptyobj.x;    // undefined

// objects are passed by reference (i.e. they are not copied):
z = binarytree.left;
z.right = 999;
binarytree.left.right;    // 999


JavaScript arrays are not linear allocations of memory (as in C), but objects with an array-like interface. Like objects, array values need not be the same type. Values can be of any type.

var emptyarray = [];
var myarray = [
    "zero", "one", "two", "three", "four"
emptyarray[1];         // undefined
myarray["1"];         // "one"
myarray[1];         // "one"
emptyarray.length;    // 0
myarray.length;        // 5

for (var i=0; i < myarray.length; i++) {
    console.log(i, myarray[i]);

// grow:
myarray[myarray.length] = "five";
myarray.push("six");     // myarray is now: 
// ["zero", "one", "two", "three", "four", "five", "six"]
myarray.length;        // 7

// shrink:
myarray.pop();    // returns "six", myarray is now:
// ["zero", "one", "two", "three", "four", "five"
myarray.length = 3;
// myarray is now ["zero", "one", "two"]

// .length is not necessarily to be trusted:
emptyarray[1000] = 1;    
emptyarray.length;    // 1001

Because arrays are really objects, we can add non-numeric properties and methods to individual arrays. We can also change their .prototype. Arrays inherit from Array.prototype by default, which gives them many useful methods (and the .length special property).

Don't use delete on arrays; it will leave undefined holes in them. Instead use .splice(index, elements_to_remove, elements_to_add):

["a", "p", "q", "c"].splice(1, 2, "b");    // ["a", "b", "c"]

array.concat(items...) will create a new array (a shallow copy) and push items onto the end. array.slice(start, end) will create a shallow copy from a sub-section of the array. Do not confuse slice with splice.

array.join(separator) will turn the array into a string.

array.shift() removes and returns the first element, array.pop() removes and returns the last element. array.unshift(item) prepends to the start of the array, array.push(item) appends to the end.

array.sort(comparefunc). The default comparefunc is alphabetic, so it will sort numbers incorrectly. Provide your own comparefunc, which takes two arguments and returns negative if the first item is lower, positive if the second item is lower, and zero if they are equal. E.g.:

// sort numbers properly:
array.sort(function(a, b) { return a - b; });

Multidimensional arrays are just arrays whose values are arrays. E.g. to create a 3x3 array of zeroes:

var z = [
    [0, 0, 0],
    [0, 0, 0],
    [0, 0, 0]
// or
var z = [];
for (var r=0; r<3; r++) {
    z[r] = [];
    for (var c=0; c<3; c++) {
        z[r][c] = 0;

Note: since typeof myarray returns "object", we must use the prototype to distinguish objects & arrays:

var is_array = function(obj) {
    return obj && typeof obj === "object" && obj.constructor === Array;


Functions are objects; they can have properties. Functions also store their context. As objects, they can be stored in variables, objects, arrays etc, and passed around as arguments & return values of other functions. For example, passing a function as an argument is commonly done when specifying callbacks.

If a function is a property of another object, it is called a method. Functions themselves can also have methods.

var <name> = function <optional name>(<argument list>) {

var add = function(a, b) {
    return a + b;

Note that functions are hoisted to the top of the program; that means functions don't have to be declared in order that they are used. You can use a function that is declared later in the program.

A function can be invoked with more or less values than specified in its definition. Extra arguments are ignored, missing arguments are undefined. When invoked, functions also receive hidden variables this and arguments.

arguments is an array-like object of all the arguments passed to the function, including excess arguments. It is not really an array, and only has the .length property and support for [] indexing. It is there to allow functions with variable numbers of arguments:

var sum = function() {
    var i, sum = 0;
    for (i=0; i<arguments.length; i++) {
        sum += arguments[i];
    return sum;

What this refers to depends on how the function was invoked:

Functions can be defined anywhere an expression can appear, even inside other functions (in which case they can access private variables of the outer function). However, because of the way this is defined, inner functions do not inherit this from the outer function. The usual workaround is as follows:

myobj.outer = function() {
    var that = this;    // make a local reference
    var inner = function() {
        // can't use "this" here, as it would refer to the global object
        that.value = that.value + that.value;


If you can understand this, then you have mastered one half of JavaScript's complexity.

By default functions link to Function.prototype. Functions also have a .prototype property; do not confuse these two! A function's .prototype is an object whose .constructor is the function itself.


JavaScript has function scope, not block scope. Within a function, the var statement defines the function's private variables. Best practice is to always declare these at the top of the function, since this is their scope (if, for and other blocks do not create new scopes). Forgetting this can easily lead to bugs.

Nested inner functions can access and modify variables defined their outer function scope -- even if the inner function has a longer lifetime (by being returned). Note that these are references, not copies.

However, if the inner function declares a variable with var, this is local to the inner function and will mask a same-named variable in the outer function scope. Note that the this and arguments of the outer scope are NOT visible in the inner scope.

Outside of functions, variables are always global. This can rapidly lead to bugs, so either put your variables inside of objects or wrap them in functions. Note, in the browser the global object is called window.

In particular, we want to carefully chose what is exposed and what is hidden when creating modules. Modules are like libraries: re-usable code with a well-defined interface. A module should not modify any global variables or otherwise conflict with other modules. Module definitions are typically defined within a function that is immediately invoked to return the actual module itself.

var <modulename> = function() {
    var m = {};
    // populate m with the module's interface
    // any helper methods are defined with var to ensure they remain private
    // avoid use of "this"
    return m;


There are no classes, but each object links to a "prototype" from which properties can be inherited. By default, objects link to Object.prototype.

The prototype is used when we index a key that the object doesn't contain; in that case, it automatically tries to index the prototype; and so on until we reach Object.prototype, in which case we return undefined. This is delegation.

Use obj.hasOwnProperty(key) to bypass the prototype chain.

Unlike classes, prototypes can be dynamically modified.

The way to write this in JavaScript is messy. When a function is invoked with new, a new object is created with a link to the function's .prototype property.

// define a function to be a constructor
// typically we capitalize constructor names:
var Quo = function(string) {
    // add "status" property to new object:
    this.status = string;
    // note, no return value needed (the returned object is implicit)

// add a method to the new prototype:
Quo.prototype.get_status = function() {
    return this.status;

// invoke constructor:
var q = new Quo("confused");


var myobj = Object.create(prototype);

This applies the prototype explicitly and avoids using new at all.

var mytype = function(spec) {
    var that = {}; // or Object.create... 
    // initialize that according to spec
    // define private members as local (var) variables
    // define public members as properties of that
    // define private methods as local (var) functions
    // assign methods to that to make them public
    return that;

This style adds security through the private members/methods, but calling super methods becomes more clunky. It also allows us to procedurally build objects with different capabilities.


The only syntax difference between object/array and JSON, is that object key names must be quoted:

{ "one": 1 }

Most JS environments now provide JSON.parse() and JSON.stringify() wich convert between JSON strings and Javascript objects, and vice versa. Otherwise, JSON libraries are available at


Throw exceptions with throw <exception-object>;, and catch with the try...catch control flow. A throw will immediately exit the current flow. The exception-object can be anything, but typically an object with .name and .message properties for the catch to deal with:

try {
    throw { name: "MyError", message: "It all went horribly wrong" };
} catch (e) {
    console.log("error " + + ": " + e.message);

Regular Expressions

A regular expression specifies the syntax of a simple (type-3) language. They are used to search and replace information from strings. RegExps are usually fast, but are difficult to write (and read!), which means they are common sources of bugs.

A pattern is a template for text that may have fixed and optional or variable components. Patterns either match a strong, or they don't. A capture within a pattern identifies the part of the pattern that we want to return.

Regular expressions are denoted with / delimiters:

var r = /pattern/;

Use regex.exec(string) to apply the pattern to a string; it will return an array of captures.

Use regex.test(string) to simply test for matches; it will return true or false.

string.match(regexp) applies a regular expression to a string. If the g flag is given, it produces an array of all the matches (instead of an array of captures). Otherwise it is the same as regex.exec.

string.replace(s, v) replaces all instances of s with v. s can be a regular expression. If s is a string, it only replaces once. v can be a string or a function; if it is a function, it is called for each match and the result used as the replacement. If it is a string, the "$" character has special meaning: like string.indexOf.

Danger zone

Since prototypes are objects, we can add methods to them as we need. This also includes Array.prototype, String.prototype, Object.prototype etc. Adding to these can be convenient, but also dangerous -- especially if the code you are writing will interact with other people's code. Never augment built-in prototypes when writing a module.

eval() takes a string, parses it as JavaScript, and runs it. setTimeout and setInterval can also take string arguments and use eval. new Function similarly compiles arbitrary code. This capability is extremely powerful, but very very dangerous and difficult to debug.